Medline: 9123739

Urology 49(Suppl 3A): 65-69, 1997.

Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study comparing radical prostatectomy versus radical prostatectomy associated with neoadjuvant hormonal combination therapy in T2-3 N0 M0 prostatic carcinoma.

Witjes WP, Schulman CC, Debruyne FM

Abstract:

Objectives:
To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in locally confined prostate cancer.

Methods:
We report the preliminary results of 354 patients (199 with a clinical T2 tumor and 155 with a clinical T3 tumor) of whom 164 randomly received neoadjuvant total androgen deprivation using a luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog (goserelin) plus flutamide for a period of 3 months.

Results:
Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostatic volume decreased from a mean of 19.9 ng/mL and 37.7 cm3 to a mean of 0.8 ng/mL and 26.5 cm3 after 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy. "Clinical down-staging" was seen in 32% in the neoadjuvantly treated group. "Pathological downstaging" percentages were 6% and 16% in the direct radical prostatectomy group and neoadjuvantly-treated group, respectively (P < 0.01). In patients with clinical T2 tumors, a significant difference in number of positive margins was shown in favor of the neoadjuvantly treated group (P < 0.01). In patients with clinical T3 tumors, a significant difference could not be detected (P = 0.14). In 215 patients with a mean follow-up time of 15 months, the calculated 95% confidence intervals of mean time of PSA progression-free survival were 26 to 35 months in the neoadjuvantly-treated group and 28 to 37 months in the direct radical prostatectomy group, indicating no significant differences between treatment groups. However, follow-up time is currently too short to draw definite conclusions.

Conclusions:
These early data confirm high understaging percentages in clinical staging. The clinical relevance of the statistically significant smaller numbers of patients with positive margins in the neoadjuvantly treated group with a clinical T2 tumor will have to be confirmed when further follow-up allows an accurate evaluation of time to PSA progression, local recurrence, and distant metastases. Presently, neoadjuvant therapy is not advisable outside clinical research settings.


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