Medline: 8627839

Journal of Urology 155(5): 1626-1631, 1996.

Outcomes of initial surveillance of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and negative nodes.

Theodorescu D, Russo P, Zhang ZF, et al.


We determined factors predictive of inguinal nodal relapse in patients with stages T1 to 3NOMO squamous cell penile cancer treated initially with surveillance of inguinal nodes.

Materials and Methods:
Between 1980 and 1994, in 42 patients with stages T1 to 3NOMO squamous cell penile cancer of 60 with invasive disease seen at our center the inguinal nodes were surveyed after definitive treatment of the primary tumor. Clinical inguinal nodal recurrences were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy.

A total of 26 patients (62%) had inguinal nodal recurrences during followup, with 50% occurring within 1.4 years and 75% within 2.8 years of resection of the primary tumor. The only factor predicting nodal relapse was grade of the primary tumor at initial treatment. Patients with grade 1 tumors had a 45% long-term actuarial relapse-free survival rate. All other groups had a 100% actuarial nodal relapse rate. Of the patients 10% had metastatic disease without nodal recurrence.

Invasive penile cancer may be associated with inguinal lymph node and hematogenous metastasis. A strong case for prophylactic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy can be made in patients with primary tumors other than grade 1, since surveillance of these patients will not spare them eventual lymphadenectomy and may potentially compromise survival by delaying surgery. Patients with grade 1 tumors may be offered either careful surveillance or prophylactic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy depending on the clinical circumstances and patient preference.

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Dr. G. Quade