Urology 45(3): 387-397, 1995.
Messing EM, Young TB, Hunt VB, et al.
Because repetitive hematuria home screening with a chemical reagent strip can detect early stage bladder cancer (BC) in asymptomatic middle-aged and elderly men, the ability of this screening to effect earlier detection and reduce BC mortality was investigated.
Grades, stages, and outcomes of BCs detected by hematuria screening in 1575 men were compared with those of all newly diagnosed BCs in men age 50 years or older reported to the Wisconsin cancer registry in 1988. BC grades and stages were assigned by review of all pathology slides/blocks, and causes of deaths were determined from cancer registry records. As an additional control group, outcomes of BC cases diagnosed in men solicited to take part in screening, who declined, were also determined.
The proportions of low-grade (grades 1 and 2) superficial (Stages Ta and T1) versus high-grade (grade 3) or invasive (Stage T2 or higher) cancers in cases detected by hematuria screening (screened cases) and those reported to the tumor registry (unscreened cases) were not significantly different (52.4% versus 47.7% in 21 screened and 56.8% versus 43.3% in 511 unscreened cases) (P > 0.20). Of the high-grade or invasive cases, however, the proportion of late stage (T2 or higher) tumors was significantly lower in the screening-detected BCs compared to unscreened ones (P = 0.007). No screened case has died of BC (3- to 9-year follow-up), whereas 16.4% of unscreened cases have within 2 years of diagnosis (P = 0.025). Twenty-three of 1940 (1.2%) men who were solicited but chose not to participate in screening were diagnosed with BC within 18 months after what would have been their last home screening date, compared with 1.3% of participants having BC detected by screening. Thus, screening participants and those who were solicited and declined had similar likelihoods of developing BC.
Hematuria home screening detects high-grade cancers before they become muscle invading and significantly reduces BC mortality.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn