Blood 85(5): 1381-1390, 1995.
Nademanee A, O'Donnell MR, Snyder DS, et al.
Eight-five consecutive patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease (HD) underwent high-dose chemotherapy or chemo/radiotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow (ABMT) and/or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Two preparative regimens were used. Twenty-two patients (26%) without prior radiation received fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) 1,200 Gy in combination with high-dose etoposide (VP-16) 60 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide (CTX) 100 mg/kg. Sixty-three patients (74%) with prior radiotherapy received carmustine (BCNU) 450 mg/m2 instead of FTBI. The median age was 32 years (range, 16 to 56). The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was three (range, 1 to 7). Forty-three patients (51%) received transplants in first relapse or second complete remission (CR), whereas 33 (39%) received transplants after second or subsequent relapse. All relapsed patients, except one, received conventional salvage chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in an attempt to reduce tumor bulk before transplant. At the time of analysis in April 1994, fifty-seven patients (67%) are alive, including 44 (52%) in continuous CR, with a median follow-up for the surviving patients of 28 months (range, 7 to 66). Thirty patients (35%) relapsed at a median of 9 months (range, 1 to 43). Eleven patients (13%) died of transplant-related complications including veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) in five, acute and late interstitial pneumonitis in three, graft failure in one, cerebral hemorrhage in one, and therapy-induced myelodysplasia (MDS)/acute leukemia in one patient. At a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 0.6 to 66), the cumulative probability of 2-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) of all 85 patients is 75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64% to 84%) and 58% (95% CI 47% to 69%), respectively. Three independent prognostic variables were identified by univariate analysis: number of prior chemotherapy regimens, prior radiotherapy, and extranodal disease at ABMT. Multivariate stepwise Cox regression identified the number of prior chemotherapy regimens as the only significant prognostic factor predicting for both relapse and DFS. There were no significant differences in the outcome of the treatment between the two preparative regimens. Our results confirm that high-dose therapy and ABMT is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory HD. Earlier transplantation is recommended before the development of drug resistance and end organ damage that results from repeated attempts of salvage therapy.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn