Annals of Oncology 5(3): 225-231, 1994.
Mayordomo JI, Paz-Ares L, Rivera F, et al.
From 1978 to 1992, 276 patients (pts) with MGCT were treated in our institution. Forty-three of the pts were female (15.5%). Median age at diagnosis was 20 years (newborn-70). Histology was dysgerminoma (D) in 14 pts (including 2 anaplastic D), endodermal sinus tumor (EST) in 9 pts, immature teratoma in 10 pts and mixed tumors in 10 pts. Primary locations were as follows: ovary (O) 33 pts and extragonadal (EG) 10 pts (pineal in 4 cases, mediastinum in 3, sacrum in 2 and pharynx in 1). Stage: I in 20 (16 O, 4 EG), II in 7 (5 O, 2 EG), III in 12 (10 O, 2 EG) and IV in 4 (2 O, 2 EG). Serum AFP was elevated in 20/22 non-dysgerminoma pts, HCG in only 5 pts and LDH in 15/36 pts. TREATMENT
Ovarian tumors: all but one pt (biopsy only) underwent surgery: unilateral oophorectomy was performed in 15 pts and bilateral oophorectomy (+/- hysterectomy, +/- others) in 17 pts. Fourteen pts were rendered disease-free, 8 pts had residual tumor (RT) < 2 cm and 11 RT > 2 cm. Chemotherapy (PVB or BEP) was given to 28 pts, radiotherapy to 2 pts and no additional treatment to 3. Finally, 30 pts achieved complete response (CR) and none have relapsed at a median follow-up of 43 months. EG tumors: None of the pts underwent radical surgery. Radiotherapy was applied to 4 pineal tumors and BEP or PVB were given to all 10 pts. To date 6 pts are disease-free, 1 is alive with mature teratoma, 2 are alive with disease and 1 died of toxic effects. The projected overall survival of the series as a whole is 89% at 10 years, and it is significantly higher for pts without EST (p < 0.02) and for pts with AFP < 1000 (P < 0.01) and age < 22 years at diagnosis (p < 0.01). The projected event-free survival at 10 years is 80.4% (87.7% for ovarian tumors vs. 54% for extragonadal, p = 0.05). No events were recorded after 28 months.
The present results reflect the dramatic effectiveness of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for ovarian MGCT and confirm that unilateral oophorectomy can preserve fertility without compromising cure. Age > 22 years, histology (EST) and serum AFP > 1000 ng/ml are possible prognostic factors (univariate analysis) to be tested in an independent body of data on cisplatin-treated patients.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn