Medline: 1309382

Journal of Clinical Oncology 10(1): 69-78, 1992.

Prognosis and other clinical correlates of pathologic review in stage I and II testicular carcinoma: a report from the Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study.

Sesterhenn IA, Weiss RB, Mostofi FK, et al.


The Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study (TCIS) was undertaken to evaluate the pathologic findings in early-stage testicular cancer as determined by central pathology review, to compare these findings with the interpretation by the contributing pathologists, and to make correlations with various clinical parameters and outcomes.

Patients and Methods:
The prospective study of non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer staged surgically involved 459 eligible patients with stage I (node-negative) or stage II (node-positive) disease. Pathologic materials from both the orchiectomy and lymphadenectomy specimens were submitted to a central laboratory for evaluation.

Central and local pathologists differed significantly in their identification of certain cellular histologies (primarily yolk sac tumors [YST]) and recognition of invasion into vascular structures. In contrast to our prior findings with local pathologic assessment, venous/lymphatic invasion as determined by central review predicted relapse in both stages. In pathologic stage I disease, the relapse rate was 19.4% (12 of 62 cases) for those with invasion versus 6.0% (10 of 168 cases) for those without invasion. In pathologic stage II disease, the respective relapse rates were 63.5% (40 of 63 cases) and 24.0% (six of 25 cases). Vascular invasion was jointly predictive with nodal stage for risk of relapse. The percentage of embryonal carcinoma (EC) in the primary tumor was predictive of nodal stage and relapse in a univariate, but not a multivariate, analysis. In a large substudy, immunohistochemical staining identified a correlation between stain intensity in YST and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. In a similar fashion human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) staining reactivity occurred exclusively in patients with syncytiotrophoblasts and correlated with serum levels of beta-HCG.

A number of tumor histology correlates with clinical parameters have been identified or confirmed. Careful pathologic scrutiny of the primary testicular tumor, especially for vascular invasion, provides important prognostic information.

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