Journal of Clinical Oncology 17(7): 2137-2143, 1999. is available online.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 17(7): 2137-2143, 1999. may be available online for subscribers.
Marina N, Cushing B, Cohen L, et al.
To determine whether the 3-year event-free survival (EFS) of children with completely resected immature teratomas is greater than 85%.
Patients and Methods:
Patients with immature teratomas treated at Pediatric Oncology Group or Children's Cancer Group institutions were eligible. Pathology was centrally reviewed to confirm diagnosis and tumor grading. Follow-up included physical examination, measurement of tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin), and imaging. All patients were monitored for events, defined as tumor recurrence, second malignancy, or death.
Seventy-three children (median age, 7.8 years) with extracranial immature teratomas were enrolled on study. Primary tumor sites included ovarian (n = 44), testicular (n = 7), and extragonadal (n = 22). However, on review, 23 patients had foci of yolk sac tumor (n = 21) or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 2), whereas 50 had pure immature teratomas. Twenty-five patients had increased alpha fetoprotein (n = 18), human chorionic gonadotropin (n = 5), or both (n = 2); nine had foci of yolk sac tumor on review. Pathology review identified 23 patients with grade 1, 29 with grade 2, and 21 with grade 3 immature teratomas. With a median follow-up of 35 months, the overall 3-year EFS was 93% (95% confidence interval, 86% to 98%), with 3-year EFS of 97.8%, 100%, and 80% for patients with ovarian, testicular, and extragonadal tumors, respectively. Only four of 23 patients with immature teratoma and malignant foci developed recurrence, suggesting that surgical resection followed by close observation are effective treatment. Overall, five patients had disease recurrence 4 to 7 months from diagnosis, and four (80%) are disease free after platinum-based therapy. The fifth patient has residual tumor after cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin treatment requiring further therapy.
Surgical excision is safe and effective treatment for 80% to 100% of children with immature teratoma.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn